The UN moves
in on crime
South Africa is by no means alone among Third World countries with a
rampant crime problem. A small UN body aims to help developing countries
fight crime -- but right now its biggest problem is the powerful US gun
lobby. SENTHIL RATNASABAPATHY reports |
Away from the glare of keeping the peace of global hot
spots, the United Nations has been quietly helping developing countries
tackle a more festering violence - crime - that may cripple economies
if allowed to grow.
The world body combats crime not by policing but by helping build
countries' capacities to set up fair and efficient penal and judicial
systems. It also seeks to deal with the long-term, underlying social
causes of crime, such as unemployment and poverty.
It does this through two key organisations - a 40-member
intergovernmental commission and its Vienna-based secretariat, the Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice Division (CPCJD). In addition, there are
a number of regional UN centres and institutes involved in the task.
The Vienna-based unit is one of the smallest of UN bodies, with a
bi-annual budget of only five million dollars and a staff of 20 - not
the ideal situation to be in, given the scale of the task. But even
that, evidently, is not small enough for some industrialised countries,
who made an abortive bid earlier this year at enforcing a 30 percent
Its low status can make it less effective, as was evident in the CPCJD's
recent attempt at forging a global view on firearms. The National Rifle
Association, a powerful American gun lobby enjoying right-wing support,
was able to spend more on a globetrotting expert to counter the CPCJD
than the Division's total budget for its own survey. "They spent more
money and got more data trying to prove it is the not the guns but the
people who do the killing," a senior UN official said.
However, the UN clearly has a significant role to play in combating
global crime. Though an ancient affliction, crime in the 20th century is
intensive and dangerous. Today, it not only means theft and assault, but
also rampant corruption, which can impose formidable costs on economic
development. In addition, modern communications and technology have
created new kinds of crime, like money laundering.
The last UN Survey on Crime Trends, published in 1990, says crime has
been increasing at the rate of five percent a year - almost on par with
economic development and faster than population growth. The number of
recorded crimes rose from 330 million in 1975 to around half a billion
by 1990; assaults from 150 per 100,000 people in 1970 to 400 per 100,000
two decades later.
More crimes means more people in jails: in 1980, there were 1.1 million
people in detention worldwide. And with the CPCJD predicting a doubling
of crime rate - from 4,000 per 100,000 people in 1985 to 8,000 per
100,000 in the year 2000 - there will be many more jails to fill.
Criminologists say some of the major underlying reasons for crime are
urbanisation, poverty and unemployment, which tend to go hand in hand.
As cities grow rapidly, governments are often unable to provide enough
jobs and other facilities, like education and housing, to the people
pouring in from villages. Growing poverty, along with the anonymity
provided by burgeoning cities and towns, are ideal grounds for crime to
In the 'Economies in Transition' of Eastern Europe and Central Asia,
another reason for exploding crime is political and economic
liberalisation, as crime groups exploit the vacuum and chaos left by the
collapse of centralised systems, according to CPCJD officials.=20
A recent report by the Russian Council for Foreign and Defence Policy
claimed there are more than 3,000 groups in Russia alone engaged in
laundering money. Figures vary, but a senior German police official
recently claimed that organised crime groups earned a staggering 5.6
trillion dollars globally in 1991, half of it from trafficking in drugs.
With such huge amounts of money involved, crime is thought to be closely
linked to the economic development of poor countries. Although the links
between development, poverty and crime remain unquantified, there is
evidence - such as in South Africa - that high levels of crime deter
investment and development work in developing countries. "The failure to
keep crime to a minimum costs cities and countries dear," the UN says.
Crime imposes two kinds of costs: of theft, corruption and money
laundering on the one hand and of fighting and preventing crime on the
other. The costs on poorer countries are often higher: while developed
countries spend two to three percent of their budgets on crime
prevention and criminal justice, developing countries spend 9-14
percent. Similarly, affluent countries maintain an average 225 police
officers for every 100,000 population, to developing countries' 500 per
To assist developing countries overcome such hurdles, the UN over the
years has prepared some 20 crime-related guidelines and model treaties,
including on the treatment of prisoners and administration of juvenile
justice, as well as a code of conduct for law enforcement officials.
But officials know that just setting global standards and guidelines is
not enough as long as countries do not have the resources and the
know-how to implement them. "The UN may have succeeded in setting global
guidelines, but its success can be measured only if they are also
implemented and in this regard, the UN cannot claim success," says one
Vienna-based source who has monitored the scene for years.
CPCJD officials admit that not all countries have been applying the
guidelines fully, but say they were never meant to be uniformly and
fully implemented by everybody in the first place. On the other hand,
without the guidelines, improvements in standards may be all the more
difficult to achieve. "Governments compare the UN guidelines with their
own, and undertake improvements if necessary," an official said.
The CPCJD's current focus is on increasing technical cooperation with
developing countries, says Mohamed E Abdul-Aziz, its senior crime
prevention and criminal justice officer. It has prepared a list of
projects aimed at building local capacity to reform criminal justice
-- Pana/Misa, October 23, 1997.